Author: Sam Carlen

Seunjoo Yoon discusses conflicts on the Korean Peninsula

Carleton Professor of History Seunjoo Yoon gave a lecture at St. Olaf on Thursday, Nov. 9, about the history of conflict on the Korean peninsula. The talk, entitled “How to End the Korean War?: A Historical Perspective,” was sponsored by the Korean Culture Association and Diversity Celebration Committee (DCC). Yoon’s lecture discussed Korean history, the colonial imposition of Western norms on Korea and the history of the current nuclear crisis. Underlying Yoon’s lecture was his thesis that Westerners have forced claims about sovereignty and international law upon Korea and that Koreans ought to question these claims.

Yoon began his lecture by noting that President Donald Trump’s trip to South Korea has provoked divided reactions among the Korean public, with younger Koreans voicing their opposition to his visit and older Koreans expressing support. Yoon displayed images of these two groups demonstrating, showcasing their wildly different sentiments regarding President Trump. 

“What I’m going to accomplish today is to put these images into historical context by looking at the question of sovereignty,” Yoon said.

Yoon then gave a brief overview of past military conflicts on the Korean peninsula, noting that there has been more than one Korean War. He also delved into the foundations of Korean identity, describing how Koreans began to venerate Mt. Paektu as the site of their collective birthplace. 

“Most of them [Koreans], by 1905, came to identify their national or ethnic origin with that particular mountain … where, as the legend goes, the Korean ethnic progenitor has descended from heaven and begotten the Korean ethnic groups.”

Yoon went on to describe the Japanese colonization of Korea, and how European-trained Japanese legal scholars promulgated Western notions of international law. One of the key ideas was that sovereignty should entail equality of states in the eyes of the international community. The Japanese also spread certain economic norms developed in Europe after the Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years’ War. 

“The Westphalia System … regularized tariffs and taxation in a rational manner based on the idea of presumed equality among the nations, irrespective of size.”

Yoon described how the Japanese disseminated the idea of property rights, accompanied by the concept of “custodiancy” wherein a responsible actor takes care of neglected land in place of the lawful owner. Yoon explained how the idea of property custodiancy came to justify political custodiancy in the form of colonialism. 

“That kind of custodiancy is an integral part of colonial legality,” Yoon said. “Colonialism became legalized in the name of international law.”

Yoon went on to explain how after World War II, American legal advisers continued the Japanese tradition of instilling Western political ideals in Korea. America’s presence on the peninsula increased as the Cold War brewed and military conflict broke out between North and South Korea.

After describing the history of conflict on the Korean peninsula, Yoon turned to current events and the escalating tensions between the U.S. and North Korea. Rather than immediately focusing on the current state of affairs, Yoon traced the history of North Korea’s nuclear program, and gave an overview of various U.S. initiatives to thwart its efforts. He described how the current policy towards the North’s nuclear program is known as CVID: Complete, Verifiable, Irreversible Dismantlement of the North’s weapons. 

Yoon then outlined the various ways in which American and Korean policies towards North Korea have differed throughout the past, and how many liberal South Koreans are increasingly skeptical of the Korean-U.S. alliance. As evidence condemning the utility of this partnership, many critics point to U.S. pollution of the Han River, U.S. support for the repressive 60s-era military dictatorship and covert CIA interference. Yoon concluded his speech by exhorting the audience to question the U.S.-Korean alliance, and ponder whether Western notions of sovereignty ought to persist given the history of their imposition.

× Featured

Student journalism is a very important platform for opinions

Behind the scenes of St. Olaf’s grounds crew

St. Olaf College has five miles of roads, 11 miles of sidewalks, 100 feet of elevation change and 300 acres of groomed campus. St. Olaf’s grounds crew tends to these massive swaths of land, caring for natural tracts and concrete thoroughfares alike.

Broadly speaking, the grounds crew takes care of everything outdoors, from sidewalks and parking lots, to trees, shrubs and flower beds. The grounds crew is also responsible for composting, maintaining the athletic fields and natural lands, storm-water drainage and moving equipment across campus. 

With winter on its way, the grounds crew’s work becomes more critical by the day. Many students will soon appreciate plowed sidewalks and salted roads on their way to class. Outdoor enthusiasts will enjoy groomed ski trails winding through the natural lands. The grounds crew has also taken part in recent preparations for Christmas Fest, moving equipment down to Skoglund and transforming grass fields into overflow parking space.

With a veteran staff of nine employees, some who have been at St. Olaf for over 20 years, the grounds crew possesses unique insights into the College’s past and future. 

Some of this knowledge arises from odd, chance encounters with the College’s history. For instance, during the construction of Regents Hall, the builders and grounds crew uncovered timbers from an old chapel that had previously burned down and been buried. 

“That’s one thing I’ve put together over the years, as we discover the hilltop of the campus has been modified by man for quite a while,” Assistant Director of Facilities Jim Fisher said.

Over the years, Fisher and the grounds crew have had to repeatedly accommodate sweeping overhauls of the campus’s buildings and layout. For example, the predecessor to the Center for Art and Dance (CAD) used to exist where Regents Hall currently stands. CAD used to be the Student Center – before Buntrock Commons was built – complete with a bowling alley, Cage and dining area. Tomson Hall was the science building, and parts of Christiansen Hall of Music housed administrative offices. 

“The Buntrock parking lot was not a sheet, it was actually tiered down the hill,” Fisher said. “All the excavation from Buntrock Commons was pushed out to make a level parking lot rather than a tiered parking lot. What we see right now on St. Olaf campus has changed a lot in 25 years, let alone 150.”

There used to be a ski jump on the hill by Thorson Hall. Although it was taken down several decades ago, the footings remained and the hill stayed open for sledding, leading to some grisly accidents. One of Fisher’s first actions at St. Olaf was to close this hill to sledding by planting trees and foliage. 

“It was just too tempting and too many trips to the emergency room with broken arms and broken noses, with students sliding down where the ski jump used to be. It was not very wide, but it was very steep,” Fisher said.

Grounds crew also has unique background knowledge regarding the renovation of Holland Hall. 

“For the first 20-some-odd years here, I kept getting complaints that water was getting into the basement of the building, and when we started excavating we discovered that sometime in the 60s they bermed dirt up against the wall of Holland Hall,” Fisher said. This led to groundwater leaking into the building. 

“That’s why there’s more, what appears to be more building exposed now, but it’s actually taken back more to the original flavor of what was there,” Fisher said. Reverting Holland Hall to its original design presented some logistical challenges. For instance, the original Holland Hall was not accessible, leading to the need for the long, drawbridge-esque pathway on the north side of the building.

According to Fisher, proper maintenance of the outdoor facilities has dramatically extended their lifespan. 

“Doing proper maintenance on some of these things, the track for instance, the outdoor running track is 28 years old right now, and just by doing proper maintenance on it, that’s probably two to three times longer lived than most outdoor artificial running tracks,” Fisher said.

Fisher and the grounds crew foresee a number of renovations happening in the future. Most immediately, a number of dormitories need remodelling, although more drastic projects may be on the horizon. 

“Buntrock is coming up on it’s 20th birthday sometime not too far down the road, just a couple more years here. It’s going to need some remodelling,” Fisher said.

× Featured

Student journalism is a very important platform for opinions

Cornel West delivers speech on self-examination

Dr. Cornel West delivered a wide-ranging and impassioned speech in Boe Chapel on Friday, Oct. 27, condemning America’s “spiritual blackout” and urging self-examination. Appearing as the Political Awareness Committee’s (PAC) fall speaker, West’s talk concerned personal character, education, politics and social justice. He is Professor of the Practice of Public Philosophy at Harvard University, and is known across the country as a provocative and distinguished intellectual. 

According to PAC Coordinator Abdul Wake ’19, PAC invited West in order to gain a fresh perspective on politics from a fiercely non-partisan polemicist and celebrated scholar. 

“He’s also very critical of the standing that this country takes, that of the reigning political ideology, that of neoliberalism, that of neofascism,” Wake said.

West’s speech was the first PAC event for which attendees were required to obtain tickets. Last spring, Angela Davis’ speech attracted far more attendees than Boe Chapel had room for, prompting PAC to create an attendance cap for West’s appearance. Wake explained that the Music Entertainment Committee’s (MEC) ticketing of concerts provided an example for PAC to follow.

West’s speech focused heavily on personal character, education, American moral decay and the power of love. Grounding his message was an exhortation to the audience to engage in critical self-reflection aimed at uncovering one’s moral and spiritual principles.

“You have to discover who you really are: not the spectacle, not the image,” West said. “What kind of litmus test will you meet in terms of the moral and spiritual criteria?”

West tied his overarching message to the concerns of PAC, arguing that personal character and unbreakable principles must come before political action. 

“What kind of human beings will we choose to be? Who’re you gonna be, what kind of legacy, what kind of witness? That’s the question when you talk about political awareness, you don’t start with public policy,” West said. “You don’t start with ideology, you don’t even start with analysis. You start with ‘what kind of person are you?’”

West bemoaned the role models and celebrities worshipped by younger generations, denouncing them as market-driven and superficial. 

“Where’s the morally latent exemplars who cut against the grain, who raise the most fundamental question, and, most importantly, [are] willing to take a risk for something bigger than their careers?” West said.

In West’s eyes, such a perspective marginalizes you in our current society, particularly in one uncomfortable redressing historical wrongs. 

“America has been in denial of the funk of its own stuff … Never believe the lie that slavery is the original sin of America,” West said. “Slavery was the second one, it was the treatment of our precious and our priceless indigenous brothers and sisters.”

To West, one of the crucial components to building character is interrogating beliefs through the Socratic method. West urged students to embrace this kind of self-scrutiny and analysis as they advance through college. 

“When you graduate from St. Olaf, it doesn’t necessarily mean that St. Olaf has been through you unless you have been Socratized. I’m talking about that deep education,” West said.

West argued that deep education, combined with personal cultivation of moral character, can counteract the nihilism and selfishness ailing society.  

“We’re living in a moment of spiritual blackout, which is a moment of the relative eclipse of integrity, of honesty, of decency, of courage,” West said. “These days, too many young folk are taught what? The end of life is to be the smartest in the room? How empty, how hollow, how shallow. Let the phones be smart, you’ve got to be wise.”

West traced Trump’s election to this “spiritual blackout”, and condemned what he perceives as a materialistic and rapacious societal ethos filling the spiritual vacuum. He ended his speech with a return to his central message of cultivating personal character and laid out some words of guidance. 

“Confront oppression. Integrity, intellectual integrity: tell the truth, no matter how popular. Spiritual integrity: stay on the love train … I’m talking about love of truth.”

West concluded his talk with 45 minutes of answering questions from the audience on a wide range of subjects. Audience members posed questions on race and Black Lives Matter, the Minneapolis mayoral campaign, political activism, West’s criticism of President Obama and many other topics.

× Featured

Student journalism is a very important platform for opinions